Frog Party

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I’m back from the Bahamas but leaving for Greece tomorrow afternoon! Whew. I knew it was going to be a fast turnaround but my head’s spinning trying to keep track of the simultaneous fieldwork wrap-up and start-up to-do lists. I have a couple of pictures and videos ready to share from the Bahamas though so I want to get them posted quick before the next adventure is in full swing.

All in all the Bahamas visit was a success. We shipped 360 lizards back to Harvard for a big breeding experiment and got more data on habitat use for well over 1200 lizards across Eleuthera, Long, and Bimini islands. The team was terrific, the lizards were plentiful, and the weather was perfect. Well, almost.

The final day of fieldwork was a complete washout. As Raphaël said, “C’est la fête à la grenouille” – a party for frogs. Alas, we were after lizards, not frogs, so we stayed in until the last minute hoping it might clear. When it became obvious that a thorough drenching was inevitable though, Raphaël and I put on our swimsuits and set out. We needed to return all of the lizards that we’d caught that we weren’t bringing back to Harvard with us. It was a sloppy wet hour and a half for us but I’m pretty sure the lizards appreciated being brought back home.

Here’s a short video documenting the adventure:

 

A quick picture update from the Bahamas

There’s lots going on here in the field. We’ve just wrapped up collecting on Eleuthera and Long Island. I’m back on New Providence swapping out crew. Rob left after Eleuthera. He swapped spots with Geoff. We just lost Jon – a champion lizard catcher on Eleuthera and Long. Raphaël is still here and we’re being joined by Angus and Pavitra tomorrow. The rapidly switching roster is actually the least of the logistics worries but today, with twenty-dozen lizards safely ensconced in a cooler on their way back to Boston, I’m finally taking a few deep breaths.

Here are just a few pictures from the field. I’ll bolster them with a prosier post as soon as I can.

Here’s our quarry, Anolis sagrei, the “festive” anole.

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And here’s one with dewlap unfurled.

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This was Rob’s first time catching Anoles. Here’s his face after his first successful lasso.

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Three days later he was catching like a pro while reposed under thorn bushes.

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We’re catching a lot of lizards for this study – 120 per island. Here are a few in a lizard bag waiting for sorting.

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While we’re catching lizards we’re also gathering data on their behavior and ecology – where they’re piercing and how warm that perch is for example. Here are Raph and Rob typing in some of the data. We’ve got well over 600 observations so far.

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We’ve been doing a bit of driving between sites. Not a problem though with scenery like this. Note, the steering wheel is on the American side but the roads are all reversed (Thanks Great Britain). This causes some consternation trying to get used to the unfamiliar lane position with a familiar vehicle layout. Oddly, 2 of the 3 cars I’ve driven this trip have been reversed in this way. This however was the only car with a helpful red arrow to remind me where to be on the road. Luckily for these dirt paths it’s one car at a time no matter the side.

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We’ve met a few other friends in the field. Here’s Geoff with a racer snake we found in the forest.

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And here’s Anolis angusticeps, the coolest, most secretive anole we’ve seen this trip.

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Here’s the final stage – a giant cooler in the back seat of a small sedan to the airport. Just peeking over the cooler in the back there is Jon, the ringer for lizard catching.

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Bimini is our next stop for tomorrow! One more push on fieldwork, another ten dozen lizards, and then it’s back to Boston.

 

Walking around Redonda

One of our first goals on Redonda was to get a good sense for the density of lizards on the island. This is one of the key metrics that has changed following rat eradications elsewhere in the Lesser Antilles. To do that we used a few different methods, we’re hoping that each will give us a slightly different sense for densities that we can compare one year to the next.

The first was a mark-recapture study in two different locations. We’d survey a fixed area (one of the big fig trees at the north of the island and a boulder field at the south) and catch all the lizards we could find. Every time we caught a lizard we’d write a number on its belly and put a little white dot on its backside (see below). The paint spot will help us see the lizard from a distance without spending lots of time trying to catch a lizard that’d already been caught that day.

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Lizard number 22 getting a number on its belly. Photo credit: Geoffrey Giller

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An anole hanging out on a branch after getting a white spot. Photo credit: Geoffrey Giller

We spent two long days marking all of the lizards we could find in the tree and the rocks. After each site had had a day to rest, we returned. By figuring out which lizards we’d previously caught and how many new lizards had shown up we can get an estimate of just how many lizards are using that area. The lizards in the tree were particularly plentiful – we’re estimating a population of around 50! with unlimited time we’d continue marking, revisiting, and recapturing a few more days but our island time was short so we compromised with a single recapture day at each site. We’ll repeat the survey next year in the same places to see if there are changes in density.

Our next survey method was the tried-and-true walk around, look on both sides of your path, and count ’em up. For this Anthony did a big hike around the perimeter of the island counting all of the lizards he saw. He did this twice and found a lot of lizards! Here’s a page from my notebook showing the track. Unfortunately the map only really makes sense to us, but as you can see, he saw 61 anoles and 65 ameiva that day. The next day he ended up seeing 73 anoles and 118 ameiva! Those are pretty wide margins, but they’ll provide a baseline for next year’s repeat transects.

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Now, I decided to strap a GoPro to Anthony’s head for the second survey. It’s two hours long though so I had to speed the video up. Grab your dramamine, you’re going to need it!

This video is just a short segment of the hike in the vicinity of the “Hanging Gardens.” It’s one of the prettiest parts of the island I think. You can tell too how tricky some of the traversing is. On this section Anthony saw 10 ameiva and 24 anoles. Can you find them? I slowed down the first ameiva so you can get a good look. You’ll also notice a few other surprises along the way.

 

The Green Monster is back!

It’s Red Sox opening day and we’re finally getting some sun and warm temperatures. Baseball fans aren’t the only ones defrosting down in the Fenway; I just got word that an Italian Wall Lizard, our “Green Monster,” poked its head out of one of the compost piles it most likely over-wintered in.

Go Red Sox and Hurrah for the Green Monster!

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Here’s an Italian Wall Lizard from last Fall in the Gardens. No new pictures yet this spring but stay tuned!

More fieldwork on the horizon

The Redonda posts have trailed off because I’m neck-deep in prepping for the next two trips this field season. I’ve still got a few more Redonda stories in mind to write up though so I’ll try to get them posted before I leave next week. I have to tell you about the next trips though!

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Next Saturday I’m headed to the Bahamas for a quick 2 week and 2 day trip to catch Anolis sagrei, the “festive anole.” This is the last field foray of my first postdoc and the second round of sampling in the Bahamas that I was a part of last fall. You can read the posts Here, here, a little disaster here, and more pretty pictures here.

We’ll be surveying lizards on three islands: Eleuthera, Long Island, and Bimini. In each of those islands we’ll be looking for lizards in two habitats – “primary” undisturbed forest and coastal beach scrub to test for differences in morphology between the populations. We’ll also be taking 360 lizards home with us to breed here in the lizard colony. Whew, sorting out those logistics – permitting, charting flights for the lizards (yes, actually), storing them happily for long periods of time – has been a huge challenge.

To help, I’m going to have 6 people along in the field with me. This is going to be great but means we’ve had to find and sort out 4 train rides, 5 car rentals, and a total of 29 different flights. I’ll be on 8 of those flights over the 16 days! I’ll try to keep posting from the field; you’re going to see some familiar faces. Rob has caught lizards with me in Connecticut before, Geoff was with me in Redonda, and Angus was one of my old field assistants in Greece!

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Rob with his first Podarcis

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(Sorry, Angus, I was looking through old pictures and I just couldn’t resist)

Three days after getting back from the Bahamas I’m hopping on a plane to Greece! Just enough time to do some laundry. Whew!

This Greece trip is another revisit to the island manipulation experiment. The islands are steadily filling up with lizards (I think… Greece did get record snow this year…) and this time around we’ve got a lot of projects going. Anthony and I will be back measuring morphology and bite force, Menelia will be there with her sprint speed setup. Kinsey is back! This time looking at the lizards’ throat color. All in all I’ll have 10 people there running around so, again, coordinating everything has been a huge effort.

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Menelia’s hoping we won’t have this much stuff this year. Shhh… nobody tell her we’re actually gonna have 5 kayaks to haul around!

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Kinsey’s excited to get back to Greece!

I’ll be in Greece until the end of May when I’m headed back to Cambridge for a much quieter summer. Stay tuned for all of the stories from the field!

 

Reporting on the Reptiles of Redonda

This post is reposted from www.anoleannals.com and so might be a little familiar in its start to readers here.

IMG_4616I’m back from Redonda and the expedition was a great success! I’m happy to report there were many Anolis nubilus boulder-hopping out of the way of the black rats and even blacker ground lizards on the island. In many ways the trip was even more challenging than expected but we came out with quite a lot of data so we have a great sense of the current status of the reptiles on the island and a baseline for comparisons into the future.

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To refresh your memories, Redonda is an island of Antigua and Barbuda and was completely denuded by rats and goats over the last century. Despite the dearth of vegetation, three endemic reptiles had been hanging on: Anolis nubilusAmeiva (Pholidoscelis) atrata, and an as-yet unnamed Sphaerodactylus dwarf gecko. The government of Antigua and Barbuda, in collaboration with Fauna & Flora International and local NGO the Environmental Awareness Group, has decided to undertake a massive restoration effort by eradicating the rats and relocating the goats. My job was to get some baseline data on the current lizard populations so we can figure out how they change into the future.

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Helicoptering to the island was every bit as exciting as I’d hoped. The Jurassic Park theme was playing through my head the whole way down. See that grassy patch with slightly fewer large rocks – that was the little tiny helipad, but our pilot was a pro and set us down perfectly. Almost as soon as we were out of the helicopter, we deposited our bags by our tents and set about catching Anoles.

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Anolis nubilus is at first blush a relatively innocuous member of the genus. They’re perfectly camouflaged in this environment, which is to say they’re drab gray and brown. Their dewlaps are cream-colored (which is really just my nice way to say drab gray-yellow) and the most elaborate of the females sport faint dorsal stripes. Males did fairly regularly display impressive crests behind their heads, but nonetheless, the species at first and second glance is considerably less flashy than many of their cousins on nearby islands.

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Photo: Geoffrey Giller

All that said, there’s still a lot of cool stuff going on with nubilus. As Skip mentioned in his article 45 years ago, there’s a casuarina tree right next to the remains of the mine manager’s house that hosts an abundance of the few Redonda tree lizards living up to their name. The tree is still there and the lizards are still eagerly defending their precious few branches (see above).

There are actually quite a few trees still on Redonda, some of which are native Ficus trees. For the most part they’re in fairly inaccessible areas, but that really just means you need to bring a longer noose pole and don’t look down. I caught a lizard on this tree below with a perch height of approximately 350 meters (that’s really going to mess with the averages). Truth be told, after catching the lizard my knees were so wobbly I had to go find a nice big boulder and just had Geoff and Anthony shout me data for a while.

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After a week on the island and many many Anoles, we got morphometric and performance data, diet data, extended focal-animal behavior videos, two mark-recapture density studies and two permanent transects established, thermal ecology data, habitat use data, and flight behavior data. We even exhaustively determined whether nubilus likes Chuckles! (But that’s a story for another post).

I know this is an Anole blog, but there were some pretty cool things going on with the other reptiles on the island, too. The ground lizards were jet black and really big. Here’s a picture of Anthony Herrel trying to get a tail measurement:

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Photo: Geoffrey Giller

The atrata spent their days cruising around scavenging. We saw one eating a hermit crab, and we heard rumor of another that managed to get a sardine away from one of the crew working on the eradication effort! Analyzing the stomach contents of these guys is going to take quite a lot of detective work.

We also were able to gather the first natural history data on this unnamed dwarf gecko species. They’re strangely beautiful with an unlovely shovel-face and semi-transparent, too-squishy, gelatinous body. You wouldn’t guess it but they’re quick! 1D4_1226editlarge

In all, the reptiles of Redonda were fascinating and getting to explore the island was a unique privilege. I can hardly wait to return next year, and many years after, to see how the lizards change with the island.

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“What about us?” Technically these guys are reptiles too, but c’mon, the lizards are so much cooler. Photo: Geoffrey Giller